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Dr. Mirshahi A1
Dr. Vajhi A.R2
Dr. Mokhber M.R2
Dr. Masoudifard M2
Dr. Torki E2
Dr. Sorouri S2
Dr. Ghiadi A3
Dr. Ghiadi M4 
Dr. Alizadeh V4

Molecular Marker Genotypes and Measuring their Relationship with Caspian Horses

ARDESHIR NEJATI-JAVAREMI1, GHODRAT RAHIMI2, ZOHREH HEIDARI1, ABDOLJALIL GHIADI3, DAVOOD KIANZAD4, KLAUS OLEK5

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Open in new window

Dr. Mirshahi A1
Dr. Vajhi A.R2
Dr. Mokhber M.R2
Dr. Masoudifard M2
Dr. Torki E2
Dr. Sorouri S2
Dr. Ghiadi A3
Dr. Ghiadi M4 
Dr. Alizadeh V4


1. Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ferdowsi, Mashhad, Iran
2. Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran
3. Manager of Turkmen Horse Breeding & Consulting CO. (THBC)
4. Member of Turkmen Horse Breeding & Consulting CO. (THBC)
Corresponding author's email: a.mirshahi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

In equine sports medicine, it is important to evaluate the cardiovascular condition of the athlete. More recently, echocardiography has been used for this purpose.
Echocardiography is an indispensable part of the cardiovascular examination in horses presenting with murmurs, arrhythmias, or for a complete poor performance evaluation. The echocardiographic examination allows the veterinarian to accurately identify the cause of a heart murmur and assess its hemodynamic impact. This information can then be used to determine the effect the abnormality may have on the horse’s current and future performance ability and to determine whether this abnormality is likely to affect the horse’s life expectancy. The echocardiographic examination also is an important part of a prepurchase or insurance examination when a cardiovascular abnormality is detected. Real-time Brightness mode (B-mode), M-mode, and color flow Doppler echocardiography are part of the routine echocardiographic examination, with pulsed wave and continuous wave. Though echocardiographic examination could be used to predict the athletic condition of individuals, this is possible only if normal echocardiographic reference values are established. As different breeds have different biotypes and develop different aptitudes, the normal cardiac dimensions vary significantly between breeds of horses and thus it is important to have some idea what is normal for each breed when assessing an individual animal with cardiovascular disease. Research includes data for the Thoroughbred racehorse and Standardbred trotter, Arabian endurance horses. Because of these facts, and the lack of data about the echocardiographic parameters of Turkmen horses (Akhal-Teke), this study aimed to evaluate cardiac dimensions and indices of cardiac function in the normal Turkmen horses using B-mode and guided M-mode echocardiography.
33 healthy adult full blooded Turkmen horse with age average 6.35 years old ± 3.42 and weight average 369 Kg ± 37.8 were included in this study by Turkmen horse breeding & consulting company (THBC CO.). The echocardiographic examination was performed using a 1-5 MHz phase array transducer, Sonosite, Micromaxx ultrasound machine. After shaving and cleaning hair of right 4th and left 3rd-5th intercostals space, between midway point of shoulder and point of elbow, by the use of ultrasound coupling gel, B-mode and M-mode echocardiography were carried out on right parasternal short axis view from mentioned approach. Also, B-mode echocardiography of left atrium on left parasternal long axis view was done. Simultaneous electrocardiography was performed during the echocardiographic examination at base-apex lead. All of imaging stages was recorded, digitally.
The following values were obtained from M-mode and B-mode echocardiography: RVIDd 3.23 ± 0.82 cm; RVIDs 2.07 ± 0.61 cm; IVSd 2.55 ± 0.26 cm; IVSs 4.26 ± 0.40 cm; LVIDd 9.23 ± 1.07 cm; LVIDs 5.08 ± 1.04 cm; LVFWd 3.39 ± 0.88 cm; LVFWs 5.11 ± 1.10 cm; Aod 6.66 ± 0.44 cm; Vd 481.18 ± 119.11 cm3; Vs 129.98 ± 57 cm3; FS% 45.20 % ± 8.17%; EF% 73.56 ± 9.14%; E-point 0.59 ± 0.47 cm; LAAs/Aod 0,65 ± 0,1; LAs 10.30 ± 0.77 cm.
These values can be used standard and reference values for evaluation of cardiac diseases of the Turkmen horse.

REFERENCES
1. Lightowler C, Piccione G. Echocardiography and electrocardiography as means to evaluate potential performance in horses. J Vet Sci 2004;5(3):259–262
2. Michima L, Latorre SM, Andrade AFC, Fernandes WR. B-mode and M-mode echocardiography of endurance horses raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. J Equine Vet Sci 2004;24(10):451-457
3. Patteson MW. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions and indices of cardiac function in normal adult thoroughbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal Suppl 1995;19:18-27
4. Patteson MW. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. In: Marr CM, editor. Cardiology of the Horse. London: W.B. Saunders; 1999. p. 93-106.
5. Reef VB. Cardiovascular ultrasounography. In: Equine Diagnostic Ultrasound (ed. Reef VB). W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, 1998; 215-257
6. Reef VB. Echocardiography. Clin Tech Equine Pract 2004;3:274-283

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